I’m not sure of the Microsoft feature you’re describing as I don’t use any of their personal apps or services (LibreOffice & Thunderbird FTW). If you are talking about sandboxing, then it’s a built-in feature on Android – apps don’t have access to other apps. When it looks like they do (for example, you can get to Uber / Lyft from Google Maps), they don’t, it’s just a link / shortcut to another app.
There’s 12 million results on google about installing Android in VirtualBox. I haven’t tried it.
As far as taking any extra precautions on Android besides the obvious (like turning off bluetooth and NFC), I replace the launcher to get rid of the built-in Google features (news feed, search bar, voice spy), use Startup Manager to disable unnecessary apps from auto launching on startup, and NoRoot Firewall to prevent offline apps (or non-uninstallable apps that I don’t use) from getting online. We’re getting way off topic tho